Online Journal of Space Communication

About This Journal

The Online Journal of Space Communication is a project of the Society for Satellite Professionals International (SSPI) of New York. The Journal was approved by the SSPI Board in September 2001. Robert Bell is Executive Director.

The Journal is hosted and editorially managed by the School of Media Arts & Studies jointly with the Graduate Program in Communication and Development at Ohio, Athens OH.

General Editor: Don M. Flournoy

Don M. Flournoy, Prof.
School of Media Arts and Studies
Scripps College of Communication
Ohio University
9 South College Street
Athens, OH 45701
Tel: +1 740 593 4866
Fax: +1 740 593 9184
Email: don.flournoy@ohio.edu

Don Flournoy holds Masters and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Texas. He was the Dean of the University College at Ohio University (1971-81) and Associate and Assistant Dean at the State University of New York/Buffalo (1969-71) and Case Institute of Technology (1965-69). His first academic and research boss was T.Keith Glennan, first administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. His current research and teaching interests lie in international telecommunications, especially in broadband communication and application of ICTs for development. He was a project manager (1993-96) for university/industry experiments aboard the NASA ACTS satellite. He has taught Satellite Communications since 1984 and been a member of the SSPI since 1986. Click here to view CV.

Issue 1 Guest Editor: Randy Johnson

Randy Johnson, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Aviation Management and Logistics
College of Business
Auburn University
Auburn, AL 36849
Tel: (334) 844 - 6822
Email: johnsrd@auburn.edu

Randy Johnson received his Ph.D. in Telecommunications from Ohio University, Athens, Ohio. His research interests include the political and historical development of the aerospace industry and the infrastructure that supports flight. Recent publications include "Aerial Radio Navigation," "The Global Navigation Satellite System," "The History of the NACA" and "'Blind Flying On the Beam,' Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS): Its Origins and The Politics of Technology." Dr. Johnson is a retired U.S. Coast Guard aviator and holds Air Transport Pilot and Commercial Rotorcraft-Helicopter certificates. He has been an active member of the Society of Satellite Professionals International since 1999.

Issue 2 Guest Editor: Frank Gargione

Frank Gargione
Independent Satellite Systems Consultant
239 Glenn Avenue
Lawrenceville, New Jersey 08648
Tel: +1 609 883 4778
Email: gargion@attglobal.net

Frank Gargione holds a Masters degree in Computer Science from the University of Pennsylvania. He was the Program Manager of NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) at Lockheed Martin. Recent publications include a book, "The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, an insider's account of the emergence of broadband in space", and a number of technical papers on hybrids, computer aided design, the ACTS program and Astrolink.

Mr. Gargione also served as guest co-editor of the Feb. 99 IEEE JSAC issue on "Direct-to-User Satellite Systems and Technologies at Ka Band and beyond" and was co-founder of the Ka Band Utilization Conference, which has become the major source of information for systems, experiments, products, propagation, architectures/protocols and marketing for Ka Band. For information on the conference, please visit its web site at: www.iicgenova.it. Although retired from Lockheed, he continues his involvement as the NASA representative for ACTS at the company, and as an independent Satellite Systems Consultant.

Issue 3 Guest Editors: Hugh Bloemer and Dale Quattrochi

Hugh Bloemer
Remote Sensing Laboratory
Department of Geography
Ohio University
Athens, OH 45701
Email: bloemer@ohio.edu

Hubertus (Hugh) L. Bloemer has been on the Geography Faculty at Ohio University since 1971. His prime interests within the discipline rest with cartography and remote sensing. He introduced remote sensing to the curriculum in 1980 and has incorporated the technique in his research efforts. His prime research efforts revolve around High Mountain Remote Sensing and Cartography. A professional presentation in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan in July 2002 was entitled: Assessing he Impact of Tourism on Mount Kilimanjaro via Satellite Remote Sensing Data. His latest publication was: "Ecotourism on Mt. Kilimanjaro." Mt. Kilimanjaro, Spruce Knob, West Virginia, the Himalayan Mountains, the Tien Shan, the Altai Mountains, the Alps, and others have served as outdoor laboratories for a most gratifying career.

Dale Quattrochi
NASA Earth Science Department
Global Hydrology and Climate Center
SD60 Marshall Space Flight Center
Huntsville, AL 35812
Tel: +1 256 961 7887
Fax: 1 256 961 7788
Email: dale.quattroch@msfc.nasa.gov

Dr. Dale Quattrochi is a Senior Research Scientist with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama and has over 23 years of experience in the field of Earth science remote sensing research and applications. He received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Utah, his M.S. degree from the University of Tennessee, and his B.S. degree from Ohio University, all in geography. Dr. Quattrochi's research interests focus on the application of thermal remote sensing data for analysis of heating and cooling patterns across the diverse urban landscape, which form the dome of elevated air temperatures over cities known as the urban heat island effect. He is also conducting research on the applications of geospatial statistical techniques, such as fractal analysis, to multiscale remote sensing data.

Dr. Quattrochi is the recipient of the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, NASA's highest science award. He is the co-editor of two books: Scale in Remote Sensing and GIS (with Michael Goodchild) published in 1997 by CRC/Lewis Publishers, and Thermal Remote Sensing in Land Surface Processes (with Jeffrey Luvall) published in 2003 by Taylor & Francis.

Issue 4 Guest Editor: W.M. (Mac) Evans

W.M. (Mac) Evans
8 Halldorson Crescent
Kanata, Ontario
K2K 2C4
Email: mac.evans@sympatico.ca

Mac Evans served for seven years as President of the Canadian Space Agency. He developed the 1985, 1994 and 1999 Space Plans for Canada, forging a broadly based consensus that allowed these plans to be approved with an allocation of over $3 billion of new funding. He retired from the Public Service of Canada. Among his achievements were the unique partnerships he developed between the Federal Government and the Canadian Space Industry which led to its remarkable growth and participation in the international marketplace. He led the negotiations with NASA for Canada's participation in the International Space Station Program.

He received the Prime Minister's Outstanding Achievement Award of the Public Service of Canada; NASA's Distinguished Public Service Medal in recognition of his dedicated and exceptional efforts in support of US/Canadian cooperation in space. In 2003 Mr. Evans was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the Society of Satellite Professionals International.

Issue 5 Guest Editor: Bruce Elbert

Bruce R. Elbert, President
Application Technology Strategy
3202 Cove Creek Court
Thousand Oaks, CA 91362
Tel: +1 805 531-9692
Email: bruce@applicationstrategy.com
Web: www.applicationstrategy.com

Bruce Elbert is the founder and President of consulting firm Application Technology Strategy, Inc. and has over 30 years of experience in satellite communications, wireless and information technology, from engineering and management perspectives. As a senior vice president with the satellite division of Hughes Electronics, he directed major technical projects and service organizations and led business activities in the U.S. and overseas.

Bruce Elbert is an adjunct professor at the University of Wisconsin, College of Engineering, and an instructor at the UCLA Extension where he presents courses on satellite communications and IT networking. He has authored seven books on telecommunications, satellite and network technology and business management. He holds an MBA degree from Pepperdine University, an MS degree in communications engineering and computer science from the University of Maryland and a BSEE from CCNY.

Issue 6 Guest Editor: Kathleen Sweet

Kathleen M. Sweet, M.A., J.D., Lt. Col (Ret) USAF
Phone: 353-87-6384874 (Ireland)
Phone: 44-7803 937755 (UK)
Phone: +1 928 445 5173 (US)
Mobile: +1 928 237 0621 (US)
Fax: +1 928 777 8773 (US)
Email: smsweet@rmsecgroup.com

Kathleen M. Sweet, MA, JD, LT Col (ret) is on the faculty of Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, in the Department of Security, Intelligence and Globalization. She retired from the Air Force in 1999. While in the military, she was an instructor at the Air War College, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, an Assistant Air Attache to the Russsain Federation, an Intelligence Officer and a member of the Staff Judge Advocate's Department.

Additionally she was assigned as a military/political affairs officer to the 353RD Special Operations Wing, Clark, AB, Republic of the Philippines. She is the author of two books, Terrorism and Airport Security, Edwin Mellen Publishers, March 2002, and Aviation and Airport Security, Prentice Hall Publishers, November 2003. She has published articles on the Russian Space Program, Weapons Treaties and the Use of Space, Bio/chemical Terrorism and Russian Crime.

Issue 7 Guest Editors: David Hartshorn and Martin Jarrold

David Hartshorn
Secretary Gen., Global VSAT Forum
Tel: +44 1727 884 739
Fax: +44 1727 884 839
Email: david.hartshorn@gvf.org
Web: www.gvf.org

David Hartshorn is Secretary General of the Global VSAT Forum, the London-based non-profit international association of the VSAT industry. The Global VSAT Forum consists of more than 160 members from every major region of the world and from every sector of the industry, including satellite operators, manufacturers, system integrators, and other service providers.

Mr. Hartshorn serves as Rapporteur for an ITU programme on satellite regulation in developing countries; is a Member of the Satellite Action Plan-Regulatory Working Group, the Brussels-based satellite-industry group that provides inputs to the European Commission. He has published in hundreds of magazines and newsletters, and has spoken and chaired at conferences and seminars in every major region of the world. Hartshorn has served on the Board of Directors of the Society of Satellite Professionals International, and President of its UK Chapter.

Martin Jarrold
Chief, International Programme Development Global VSAT Forum
Tel: + 44 1727 884513
Mobile: + 44 7802 612924
Fax: + 44 1727 884839
Email: martin.jarrold@gvf.org
Web: www.gvf.org

Martin Jarrold assumed the position of Chief of International Programme Development of GVF in June 2001. His responsibilities include outreach to the member organisations of the GVF and implementation of education and information dissemination programmes designed to educate and inform various "communities" about the products and services of the satellite communications industry. Prior to joining the GVF, Mr. Jarrold was Commissioning Editor and Head of Research for Space Business International magazine. His earlier career was predominantly in teaching and writing. He holds an honours degree in History and Politics from the University of Keele in the United Kingdom.

Issue 8 Guest Editor: Sukarno Abdulrachman

Ir. Sukarno Abdulrachman
Masyarakat Telematika Indonesia
Jl. Terusan Hang Lekir I / No. 25
Jakarta 12220 - INDONESIA
Phone: +62 21 7221016, 72801319
Fax: +62 21 7267931
Email: s_abdulr@psn.co.id
Web: www.mastel.or.id

Sukarno Abdulrachman is Chairman of the Board of Professions and Associations, the Indonesian Infocom Society, and Commissioner PT Asia Cellular Satellite (PT ACeS) and Commissioner PT. Pasific Satelit Nusantara (PT. PSN). He was an engineering student at the Bandung Institute of Technology (1950-1955) and at the Technische Hogeschool Delft in the Netherlands, where he graduated in 1959. On his return to Indonesia he joined the Indonesian PTT and in 1965 became the Director of Planning and Construction of PN. Telekomunikasi (now PT. Telkom).

In 1969 after a short assignment at the Directorate General for Post and Telecommunications, Sukarno Abdulrachman was promoted to Chief of Planning, Ministry of Transport, Post and Telecommunications (1972-1982). In 1982 he returned to the Directorate General for Post and Telecommunications as Director General (1982-1991). From 1991-1994 he was the Ambassador of the Republic of Indonesia in Ankara, Turkey.

Sukarno Abdulrachman was elected President of the Indonesian Telecommunications Society (MASTEL) for two terms (1997-2003), during which period the Indonesian Telecommunications Society was restructured, becoming the Indonesian Infocom (ICT) Society.

Issue 9 Guest Editors: Paul M. Bobrowski and Qishan Zhang

Paul M. Bobrowski
Dean and Wachovia Professor
Auburn University
516H Lowder Business Bldg.
Auburn, AL 36849
Phone: +1 334 844-4832
Email: bobropm@auburn.edu

Dr. Bobrowski has published research articles in such professional journals as including Decision Sciences, European Journal of Operational Research, International Journal of Production Research, International Journal of Technology Management, Journal of Operations Management, Journal of the Operational Research Society, Logistics and Transportation Review, National Productivity Review, Omega: The International Journal of Management Science, Production and Operations Management, Project Management Journal, and Quality Management Journal.

Dr. Bobrowski has also served on the editorial review boards for the Journal of Operations Management and Quality Management Journal. He has delivered scholarly papers at more than 15 conferences nationwide and has been honored for his research and teaching, including the prestigious Stanley T. Hardy Award for the Best Article in Operations Management (1989). Dr. Bobrowski has more than 20 years of teaching experience at various universities including Indiana University, University of Oregon, and Syracuse University. In addition, he has served as a consultant for Aerojet Corporation, Hazeltine Corporation, Avco, General Electric and many others. He is a member of the Decision Sciences Institute, the American Society for Quality and Beta Gamma Sigma. Dr. Bobrowski has served on the Board of Directors of SSPI.

Qishan Zhang is a professor at Beihang University in the People's Republic of China and a nationally recognized researcher in electrical engineering and satellite communications. He has received numerous national awards including China's second grade National Award of Invention and two second grade prizes for scientific progress from the National Scientific Department. His accomplishments include 6 books and 151 scientific papers on such topics as telemetry, remote control, ITS, and the Global Positioning System.He proposed the concept of Bridge functions in 1982, and developed the first prototype of the Sequency Division Multiplex (SDM) telemetry system in 1983. Professor Zhang is the chief scientist of School of Electronic and Information engineering of Beihang University. His current research interests include telemetry, wireless communication, RFID, GPS and Galileo systems.

Issue 9 guest editors were assisted by Randy Johnson.

Issue 10 Guest Editors: Joe Pelton and Neil Helm

Joe Pelton, Director (retired)
Space and Advanced Communications Research Institute
George Washington University
Rm 230, 20101 Academic Way Dr.
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone: +1 703-726-8250
Email: ecjpelton@aol.com

Dr. Joseph N. Pelton is a Research Professor with the Institute for Applied Space Research at the George Washington University. He also holds concurrent appointments as a Member of the College of Teachers at the International Space University of Strasbourg, France and as Professor of Telecommunications at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He has headed several international research projects in space communications and frequency allocations at the Institute for Applied Space Research. During 1996/7, he served as Vice President of Academic Programs and Dean of the experimental global virtual university known as the International Space University. This project, with backing from 400 organizations around the world and most of the world's space agencies, has a central campus in Strasbourg, France, along with 24 affiliate campuses.

From 1969 to 1989, Dr. Pelton held management positions with COMSAT and the INTELSAT global satellite organization. These included Executive Assistant to the Director General of INTELSAT and Director of Strategic Policy for INTELSAT. He is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics, a member of the Who's Who International, the World Future Society, and the AIAA, as well as co-editor of Issue No 10 of the Journal of Space Communications.

Dr. Pelton is the author of 16 books in the field of satellites, telecommunications and the long range impact of technology on society, including the four book series: Future Talk, Future View, Cyberspace Chronicles and Global Talk, the latter included a nomination for a Pulitzer Prize. He has authored of over three hundred journal articles, encyclopedia entries and Congressional testimonies. Dr. Pelton holds degrees from the University of Tulsa (B.S. 1965), New York University, (M.A. 1967) and Georgetown University (Ph.D. 1971).

Neil Helm, Deputy Director
Space and Advanced Communications Research Institute
George Washington University
Rm 230, 20101 Academic Way Dr.
Ashburn, VA 20147
Phone: +1 703-726-8250
Email: neil.helm1@verizon.net

Neil R. Helm is the Deputy Director of the Institute for Applied Space Research and a Senior Research Scientist in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The George Washington University. From 1984 to 1991, Prof. Helm was the President of Helm Communications, a Washington, DC consulting firm which provided technical systems and services, primarily in the satellite communications field. One 18-month project included being the Principal Investigator for the final integration, testing, launch, and in orbit demonstration of a DOD satellite. As PI and Technical Director, he conducted research, planned in orbit experiments, designed and procured interface equipment, led the team in the conduct of experiments and demonstrations, prepared final report, and briefed results to DOD agencies.

From 1967 to 1984, he was employed by COMSAT where he held senior technical and management positions including the Director of Marketing for the Technical Services Division. From 1971 to 1979 he was at COMSAT Laboratories, where he was responsible for the commercialization of R&D into operational systems and products. He was also active in COMSAT's experiments on NASA's ATS-6 and responsible for many of COMSAT's experiments on the NASA's CTS program. He participated with Dr. Edelson, et al, in the research into the use of large geostationary platforms.

Mr. Helm received his B.S. degree from Georgetown University in 1966. He is a Member of the International Academy of Astronautics. Mr. Helm is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Chair (1997-98) of its Aerospace Policy Committee. He is an Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the Chair of its Communication Satellite Standards Committee. Mr. Helm is on the Editorial Board of Space Communications an international journal and has co-authored two books, and published more than 30 technical articles.

Issue 14 Guest Editor: Rafael Obregon

Rafael Obregon, Director
Communication and Development Studies, Ohio University
Athens, OH 45701
Tel: +1 740 593-4856
Email: obregon@ohio.edu
Web: http://commdev.ohio.edu

Rafael Obregon, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the School of Media Arts and Studies and Director of the Communication and Development Studies Program at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio.

Dr. Obregon teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in communication for development and social change, research methods, and media and international communications. His research interests include public health communication, entertainment-education and development, and capacity building issues, with a focus on sexual and reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, and maternal and child health. In addition to teaching at Ohio University, Dr. Obregon has served as a Visiting Professor at Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain), an Adjunct Professor at Universidad del Norte (Colombia), and a Guest Lecturer at University of Puerto Rico.

His scholarly publications have appeared in a number of different academic journals, including the Journal of Health Communication, Investigación y Desarrollo, The Journal of International Communication, Diálogos de la Comunicación, Quroum Academico, The Journal of Development Communication, The Journal of Health Education, and Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. He also serves on the Review Board of the Journal of Health Communication and is a member of the editorial committee of the Latin American Series of Ohio University Press.

Issue 15 Guest Editor: Mary Frost

Mary Frost
Email: frostd@msn.com

As CEO, Ms. Frost completed a dramatic turnaround of GlobeCast America with a three-pronged strategy of eliminating unprofitable products and services, consolidating facilities and product lines while sweating existing assets, and stabilizing and rebuilding P&L lines with seven new product deployments in fiber, Continuity Monitoring by customers, HD, IPTV, Broadband, Telco TV, Store and Forward, and geographic expansions into Canada and Argentina in 2008. Although headcount decreased from 225 to 110, QoS improved to 99.99. Due to limited resources, Ms. Frost has created strategic alliances and partnerships to enable quick market growth with HBO-LA, Intelsat, HD partnership with Tandberg/Scientific Atlanta, Verizon FIOS, Neulion and others.

Formerly Chief Commercial Officer, GlobeCast America, Ms. Frost managed GlobeCast's North American and Latin American sales for broadcast, cable, contribution, enterprise and government clients, while overseeing GlobeCast WorldTV - the company's Direct-to-Home satellite service for international programming. Under her leadership, WorldTV grew by more than 50% to now include over 207 channels. Promoted to Chief Commercial Officer in 2006, Ms. Frost was also responsible for the development of GlobeCast's commercial opportunities, as well as business development of strategic partnerships and joint ventures. She has more than 20 years of experience as an executive officer in media, entertainment and communications.

In past positions, Ms. Frost has served as: President of newMedia Technology, a digital asset media/management company; President and CEO of ChoiceSeat, a sports technology venture backed by Microsoft, Intel and Williams; Regional General Manager, North America, ICO Global Communications, a satellite/cell MEO venture; and Managing Director, Entertainment, Media and Communications Consulting, with Price Waterhouse, LLP.

Ms. Frost also served as Vice President of Network Broadcast Operations and Engineering for Disney/ABC and Cap Cities/ABC, managing news and broadcast technology operations. She was promoted four times during 11 years at the network based in New York.

Professional Affiliations & Awards

  • Society of Satellite Professional Hall of Fame 2009
  • Associate Director, National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (1996-present)
  • Executive Board and Vice President, Society of Satellite Professionals International (1995-1999)
  • Advisory Board for New Technology, Mississippi University for Women (current)
  • Chair, Inter-Union Satellite Operations Group of World Broadcasting Association (1989-1993)
  • President, North American National Broadcasters Association
  • Member, ABC News Women's Advisory Board (1987-1989)
  • Medal of Excellence, MUW (1992)
  • Excellence in Telecommunications Award, University of Arkansas (1992)
  • Fifth Estater profile, Broadcasting & Cable (1992)


Ms. Frost has a Bachelor of Science degree and two Master's degrees; She completed the Simmons College Executive Management Program (Cap Cities/ABC Select Achiever Program). Currently, Ms. Frost is completing a Certificate in graduate engineering Energy Technology Management at NYIT.

Issue 16 Guest Editor: Ralph Nansen

Ralph Nansen
Email: nansens@centurytel.net

Ralph Nansen is a world leader in designing, developing and promoting Solar Power Satellites. Nansen spent 31 years with The Boeing Company, primarily working in space engineering. He started as a designer on the Bomarc rocket-powered missile. In 1961, he was selected to design the configuration used by Boeing in building the giant first stage of the Saturn V moon rocket. In 1962, he became design manager of the Saturn S-1C fuel tanks, the first stage of the rocket that sent the Apollo astronauts to the moon.

From 1975 to 1980, Ralph Nansen was Boeing Solar Power Satellite Program Manager. He gathered the team of engineers, scientists and associate contractors that developed the overall SPS concept under the auspices of the Department of Energy and NASA. He presented numerous papers and participated in international conferences on future space projects in Germany and Egypt. He was invited to China as a member of the first Space Technology Exchange Mission in 1979. Nansen was asked to testify before such Congressional committees as the Senate Space Subcommittee in 1976 and the House Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics in 1978 and again in September 2000.

From 1985 to 1987, he was responsible for developing the design proposal for a fully reusable horizontal take-off space transportation system and the structural design of Boeing's National Aerospace Plane concept. Nansen retired from Boeing in 1987 to cruise the oceans in his sailing ketch FRAM. But in 1992, feeling the need an imperative for a new energy source, he elected to terminate his retirement and resume the effort to develop Solar Power Satellites.

Returning to the United States, he formed Solar Space Industries in 1993 and wrote the book SUN POWER: The Global Solution for the Coming Energy Crisis (Ocean Press 1995). His latest book, ENERGY CRISIS: Solution from Space, published by Apogee Books was released in October 2009. He received his BS in Mechanical Engineering from Washington State University.