The Effect of Endothelial Cells on UVB-induced DNA Damage and Transformation of Keratinocytes In 3D Polycaprolactone Scaffold Co-culture System

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Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Nitric oxide NO· plays an important role in the regulation of redox balance in keratinocytes post-UVB exposure. Since endothelial cells releases NO· for a prolonged time post-UVB, we determined whether human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) could have an effect on UVB-induced DNA damage and transformation of their adjacent keratinocytes (HaCaT) using a 3D cell co-culturing system. Our data show that the levels of DNA breaks and/or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) along with γH2AX are higher in the co-cultured than in the mono-cultured keratinocytes post-UVB. The NO· level in the co-cultured cells is increased approximately 3-fold more than in mono-cultured HaCaT cells within 1-hour post-UVB but then is reduced quickly in co-cultured HaCaT cells comparing to mono-cultured cells from 6 to 24 h post-UVB. However, the peroxynitrite (ONOO − ) level is higher in the co-cultured than in the mono-cultured HaCaT cells in whole period post-UVB. Furthermore, while expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is increased, the ratio of coupled/uncoupled eNOS is reduced in co-cultured HaCaT cells compared to mono-cultured HaCaT cells. Finally, the co-cultured cells have a significantly increased transformation efficiency after repeating UVB exposure compared to mono-culture HaCaT cells. Our results suggest that endothelial cells could enhance NO· /ONOO − imbalance and promote transformation of adjacent keratinocytes.