n 1976, Indonesia became the 3rd nation in the world operating a Domestic Satellite Communication System using GSO Satellites, the PALAPA A system. This satellite system provided telephony and facsimile services between cities in Indonesia and became the main TV program distribution infrastructure.
TELKOM* has been operating satellite communication networks for almost 30 years, TELKOM has experienced technology improvements, value added service improvements and also changes in regulations. Nowadays, TELKOM operates 2 satellites, PALAPA B4 and TELKOM-1, for telephony trunking for cellular systems and as data and Internet backbone throughout Indonesia. This paper is intended to describe the journey of TELKOM in operating its satellites and satellite network, earth stations, services and business aspects.
"Historical Overview: The Journey of TelKom in Operating Communications Satellites to Serve the Indonesian Archipelago,"
Online Journal of Space Communication: Vol. 4
, Article 5.
Available at: https://ohioopen.library.ohio.edu/spacejournal/vol4/iss8/5
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