Factors associated with receipt of adequate antenatal care among women in Rwanda: A secondary analysis of the 2019–20 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey

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Background Every year, antenatal care (ANC) remains a life-saving health intervention for millions of pregnant women worldwide. Yet, many pregnant women do not receive adequate ANC, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed to determine the factors associated with the receipt of adequate ANC among pregnant women in Rwanda. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2019–2020 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data. The study included women aged 15–49 years who had a live birth in the previous five years (n = 6,309). Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Overall, 27.6% of participants received adequate ANC. The odds of receiving adequate ANC were higher among those in the middle household wealth index (AOR 1.24; 1.04, 1.48) and rich index (AOR 1.37; 1.16, 1.61) compared to those in the poor wealth index category. Similarly, having health insurance was positively associated with receiving adequate ANC (AOR 1.33; 1.10, 1.60). The odds of receiving adequate ANC were lower among urban dwellers compared to rural (AOR 0.74; 0.61, 0.91); for women who wanted pregnancy later (AOR 0.60; 0.52, 0.69) or never wanted pregnancy (AOR 0.67; 0.55, 0.82) compared to those who wanted pregnancy; for women who perceived distance to a health facility as a big problem (AOR 0.82; 0.70, 0.96) compared to those that did not; and for women whose ANC was provided by nurses and midwives (AOR 0.63; 0.47, 0.8), or auxiliary midwives (AOR 0.19; 0.04, 0.82) compared to those who received ANC from doctors. Conclusion The prevalence of women who receive adequate ANC remains low in Rwanda. Effective interventions to increase access and utilization of adequate ANC are urgently needed to further improve the country’s maternal and child health outcomes.