Level density rotational enhancement factor

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© 2019 American Physical Society. Bethe wrote a pivotal paper providing the formalism for the theory of nuclear level densities. At that time, there were no known deformed nuclei, so Bethe made the assumption that all nuclei are spherical. After deformed nuclei were discovered, theorists predicted that the level density for such nuclei should be substantially enhanced over the level density for neighboring spherical nuclei. Despite these results, two comprehensive level density compilations based on neutron resonances counting at low neutron energy failed to find significant enhancement in level density for deformed nuclei. A recent paper has concluded that the Bethe spin distribution for nuclear levels is not appropriate for deformed nuclei. When a more accurate spin distribution is used in resonance analysis, it is found that an enhancement of approximately the predicted magnitude is observed.