Metabolomics in central sensitivity syndromes

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Central sensitization syndromes are a collection of frequently painful disorders that contribute to decreased quality of life and increased risk of opiate abuse. Although these disorders cause significant morbidity, they frequently lack reliable diagnostic tests. As such, technologies that can identify key moieties in central sensitization disorders may contribute to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and more precise treatment options. The analysis of small molecules in biological samples through metabolomics has improved greatly and may be the technology needed to identify key moieties in difficult to diagnose diseases. In this review, we discuss the current state of metabolomics as it relates to central sensitization disorders. From initial literature review until Feb 2020, PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched for applicable studies. We included cohort studies, case series, and interventional studies of both adults and children affected by central sensitivity syndromes. The majority of metabolomic studies addressing a CSS found significantly altered metabolites that allowed for differentiation of CSS patients from healthy controls. Therefore, the published literature overwhelmingly supports the use of metabolomics in CSS. Further research into these altered metabolites and their respective metabolic pathways may provide more reliable and effective therapeutics for these syndromes.