Motor Evolution: Lit-Up Hydra Bare All
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Whole-animal Hydra imaging shows that epitheliomuscular calcium influx dynamics and inter-cell progression speeds are very different for different behaviors. Hydra movements therefore likely arise from fast (ionotropic) and slow (metabotropic) neural mechanisms, and from interactions among the epitheliomuscular cells themselves.
Hooper, Scott L., "Motor Evolution: Lit-Up Hydra Bare All" (2019). Biological Sciences Open Access Publications. 25.