Environmental Temperatures Shape Thermal Physiology as eell as Diversification and Genome-Wide Substitution Rates in Lizards


Joan Garcia-Porta, CREAF - Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals
Iker Irisarri, Uppsala Universitet
Martin Kirchner, Museum für Naturkunde
Ariel Rodríguez, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover
Sebastian Kirchhof, Museum für Naturkunde
Jason L. Brown, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
Amy MacLeod, Museum für Naturkunde
Alexander P. Turner, University of Hull
Faraham Ahmadzadeh, Shahid Beheshti University
Gonzalo Albaladejo, CSIC - Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia (IPNA)
Jelka Crnobrnja-Isailovic, University of Niš
Ignacio De la Riva, CSIC - Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN)
Adnane Fawzi, Université Cadi Ayyad
Pedro Galán, Universidade da Coruña
Bayram Göçmen, Ege Üniversitesi
D. James Harris, Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos
Octavio Jiménez-Robles, ANU Research School of Biology
Ulrich Joger, Staatliches Naturhistorisches Museum
Olga Jovanović Glavaš, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek
Mert Karış, Nevşehir Haci Bektaş Veli Üniversitesi
Giannina Koziel, Technische Universität Braunschweig
Sven Künzel, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
Mariana Lyra, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista
Donald Miles, Ohio University
Manuel Nogales, CSIC - Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia (IPNA)
Mehmet Anıl Oğuz, Ege Üniversitesi
Panayiotis Pafilis, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Loïs Rancilhac, Technische Universität Braunschweig
Noemí Rodríguez, CSIC - Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia (IPNA)
Benza Rodríguez Concepción, CSIC - Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia (IPNA)
Eugenia Sanchez, Technische Universität Braunschweig
Daniele Salvi, Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos

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© 2019, The Author(s). Climatic conditions changing over time and space shape the evolution of organisms at multiple levels, including temperate lizards in the family Lacertidae. Here we reconstruct a dated phylogenetic tree of 262 lacertid species based on a supermatrix relying on novel phylogenomic datasets and fossil calibrations. Diversification of lacertids was accompanied by an increasing disparity among occupied bioclimatic niches, especially in the last 10 Ma, during a period of progressive global cooling. Temperate species also underwent a genome-wide slowdown in molecular substitution rates compared to tropical and desert-adapted lacertids. Evaporative water loss and preferred temperature are correlated with bioclimatic parameters, indicating physiological adaptations to climate. Tropical, but also some populations of cool-adapted species experience maximum temperatures close to their preferred temperatures. We hypothesize these species-specific physiological preferences may constitute a handicap to prevail under rapid global warming, and contribute to explaining local lizard extinctions in cool and humid climates.