Feasibility of using bioelectrical impedance analysis for assessing youth weight and health status: Preliminary findings
Background. This study assessed the accuracy of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) for measuring body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in fasted and non-fasted state and the prospect of using phase angle (PA) to indicate cellular health in youth. Methods. BIA body composition, RMR, and hydration measures were compared to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), MedGem metabolic analyzer, and urine specific gravity, respectively, at baseline in a fasted state using one-way ANOVAs. Repeated BIAs at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min post-prandial were compared to baseline using repeated-measures ANOVA. Correlations were used to assess the relationship among PA and health (blood lipids and glucose, resting BP) and fitness (grip strength and a 3 min step test) measures. Results. BIA scans (N = 58; 11.4 ± 2.9 y) measured lower body fat % (BF%) in healthy weight youth (BMI < 85th percentile; 16.4 ± 1.1 vs. 25.1 ± 1.0%) and lower visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in males (44.5 ± 2.9 vs. 34.1 ± 6.0 cm2 ) than DXA and higher RMR in all youth (1244 ± 41 vs. 1104 ± 39 kcals/day), healthy weight (1231 ± 48 vs. 1049 ± 44 kcals/day), and teens (1541 ± 62 vs. 1234 ± 72 kcals/day) than MedGem. Compared to baseline, immediate post-prandial values were significantly higher for BF% (21.4 ± 1.4 vs. 22.0 ± 1.4%) and VAT (45.4 ± 6.1 vs. 46.2 ± 6.2 cm2 ). PA was significantly correlated with BF% (r = −0.33; p = 0.01), fat-free mass (r = 0.59; p < 0.001), grip strength (r = 0.56; p < 0.001). Conclusions. While more data are needed to confirm these preliminary findings, the results suggest caution is necessary in using BIA to assess aspects of youth health and weight status, especially in males, healthy weight, and teens. However, these preliminary findings do indicate that phase angle maybe be a valuable, non-invasive tool for identifying youth who are heading towards obesity and/or obesity-related health consequences.
Howe, Cheryl A.; Corrigan, Riley J.; Djalali, Maya; McManaway, Chris; Grbcich, Alexandra; and Aidoo, Grace Sam, "Feasibility of using bioelectrical impedance analysis for assessing youth weight and health status: Preliminary findings" (2021). Applied Health Sciences and Wellness Open Access Publications. 49.