Title

The Mediterranean Diet and 2-Year Change in Cognitive Function By Status of Type 2 Diabetes and Glycemic Control

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

8-1-2019

Abstract

© 2019 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at http://www.diabetesjournals.org/content/license. OBJECTIVE To determine associations of a Mediterranean diet score (MeDS) with 2-year change in cognitive function by type 2 diabetes and glycemic control status and contrast it against other diet quality scores. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from the longitudinal Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (n = 913; 42.6% with type 2 diabetes at 2 years). Glycemic control at baseline was categorized as uncontrolled (hemoglobin A1c ‡7% [53 mmol/mol]) versus controlled. Two-year change in glycemic control was defined as stable/improved versus poor/declined. We defined MeDS, Healthy Eating Index, Alternate Healthy Eating Index, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores. Adjusted mixed linear models assessed 2-year change in global cognitive function z score, executive and memory function, and nine individual cognitive tests. RESULTS Higher MeDS, but no other diet quality score, was associated with higher 2-year change in global cognitive function in adults with type 2 diabetes (b 6 SE = 0.027 6 0.011; P = 0.016) but not in those without (P = 0.80). Similar results were noted for Mini-Mental State Examination, word recognition, digit span, and clock drawing tests. Results remained consistent for individuals under glycemic control at baseline (0.062 6 0.020; P = 0.004) and stable/improved over 2 years (0.053 6 0.019; P = 0.007), but not for individuals with uncontrolled or poor/declined glycemic control. All diet quality scores were associated with higher 2-year memory function in adults without type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Both adhering to a Mediterranean diet and effectively managing type 2 diabetes may support optimal cognitive function. Healthy diets, in general, can help improve memory function among adults without type 2 diabetes.

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